Friday, April 19, 2024

What Are The Models Of Addiction

What Is The Social Model Of Addiction Treatment

Models of Treatment for Addiction | Addiction Counselor Training Series

The social model addiction treatment has become one of the most common forms of treatment used in a modern rehab center today. The social model centers heavily on people helping people through their rehabilitation and recovery from some form of addiction. These social principles were rooted in the foundations of Alcoholics Anonymous and other social programs centered on curing drug abuse or alcoholism. The social model of addiction treatment is helpful because it can help build confidence, self-esteem, and other vital skills for an individual trying to live a life of sobriety. People learn from others, so why should alcohol and drug addiction treatment be any different?

Peer support is essential to a variety of approaches to drug and alcohol problems. However, there is limited information about the best ways to promote it. According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information , Californias social model approach offers useful suggestions for facilitating peer support in residential recovery settings.

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Strengths Of The Brain Disease Model

Supporters of the model argue that because addiction is really about drugs mucking up certain parts of the brainand there may be genetic predispositionthen addiction cannot be a moral issue. In a very real sense, those suffering from addiction are not responsible for drug use. They see compulsion as the defining feature of addiction, meaning the drug user has lost voluntary control over drug use. The popular idea that addicts are irresponsible or sinful just doesnt make sense. So, according to this model, we have to offer them health care, not a jail cell.

Stigmatizing addiction as a moral issue is not only scientifically wrong, but it also wastes a lot of tax dollars. Research has shown that stigma is a barrier to asking for help. For example, many experts believe that the addiction rate for women is at least as high as for men, but there is such a stigma attached to addiction that many women prefer to suffer alone rather than ask for help.

Finally, if it is a brain disease, then it is logical that insurance companies pay for treatment, just as they would for heart problems or schizophrenia. So, as we can see, the disease model does have some benefits.

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What Is The Disease Model Of Addiction

The disease model of addiction regards addiction as a biological issue. It is a chronic medical condition that has multiple sources, including genetic and environmental components.

Many chronic diseases like diabetes have roots in genes. If your father or grandfather had diabetes, you are more susceptible to it.

A similar process happens with addiction. The National Institute on Drug Abuse has concluded that half of a persons risk of addiction depends on their genetic makeup. The Institute is conducting more research, but they are finding genes that are present in many people with addiction.

Factors in someones work or personal environment can cause a number of diseases. Exposure to toxic chemicals can result in respiratory illness or cancer. Having few friends can lead to memory loss.

A few environmental factors can lead to addiction. Some people use drugs to cope with trauma. Others witness their friends using drugs, so they use them as well.

The Social Model Of Addiction Offers A Variety Of Benefits

2: The cycle of addiction The cycle of addiction shows how difficult it ...
  • Encourages peer support and community with others in recovery
  • Promotes permanent changes in attitude about treatment completion
  • Highlights the importance of building a strong support system outside of rehab
  • Underscores the need to make changes in habits and schedules after rehab to sustain sobriety
  • Teaches the person new skills, hobbies, and behaviors that help those living in recovery
  • Increases the individuals confidence and motivation
  • Prepares clients for life after rehab

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What Are The Main Models Of Addiction

Throughout history, we have tried to understand the concept of drug use and why only certain people get addicted. There have been many theories that have been developed over time that provide us with explanations for drug use. Some of these theories were developed into models which help us define a problem or situation so we can understand it more easily. The models listed below are among the most influential in the development of drug treatment and policies. These models influence how we care for individuals who have issues with drugs. You may be able to relate better with some versus others.

Models Who Struggle With Substance Abuse And Addiction

  • Access to licensed treatment centers
  • Information on treatment plans

Models can be exposed to very adult problems at an early age, which is perhaps why some end up with drug and alcohol problems. These nine models have dealt with severe alcohol and drug abuse problems, and many are not yet sober.

While some of these models might be in denial about their alcohol and drug problems, and others might not admit to the issues, but information on their rehabilitation efforts goes to show just how hard it can be to stop an addiction problem.

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Strengths And Limitations Of The Brain Disease Model Of Addiction

Of all the theories of addiction that researchers have proposed, the biomedical model of addiction seems to get the most attention. This model says that addiction is a brain disease. Its defining feature is that a drug hijacks the brain, leaving the person no choice but to continue using the drug. Most followers of the brain disease model accept that a persons psychology and environment play some role, but the real issue is the negative effect of the drug on the physical brain. Those who believe in the disease model believe that it provides the best chance we have to significantly advance our understanding, treatment, and prevention of addiction.

Many addiction experts question whether the model will help us. A common complaint is that focusing on brain chemicals ignores peoples motivations to use drugs. Some complain that the disease model is too mechanical, or too neat and tidy, to offer a sound explanation. Others point out that telling individuals with chronic drug problems that they are powerless overusing has led to fewer people overcoming addiction on their own .

In this blog, we examine a few key features of the brain disease model to discover its strengths and limitations.

Why Is Accepting Addiction As A Disease Important

Models of Treatment | Addiction Counselor Exam Review

Unfortunately, the physical and mental aspects of addiction make it extremely difficult for addicts to get sober on their own. Once an individuals brain chemistry has been altered to display addictive qualities, they will remain that way for life. While addiction is a permanent and progressive disease, treatment is possible through detox, rehabilitation treatment, and continuous aftercare. Because addiction is characterized by distinguishing factors for development, signs, and symptoms that can be treated, it is rightfully classified as a disease.

By viewing addiction as a disease rather than a choice, the stigma that surrounds addiction will come to an end. Addicts and alcoholics will be seen as individuals with a chronic illness, rather than a morally-inept criminal. This allows addicts to be less ashamed of their disease, causing them to feel more comfortable when asking for help. In other words, addicts and alcoholics will feel more hopeful about their recovery, instead of being ashamed. This may result in decreasing numbers of addiction-related deaths or illnesses, as more addicts and alcoholics would seek treatment.

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Models Of Addiction: The Medical Model

However necessary and it is necessary good acute care will never be enough to solve the problem of addictions.

Models of Alcoholism and Drug Addiction: Part Two

Weve talked about how difficult it is to come up with a single effective approach to addictions, and thats exemplified by the various models that exist. By examining the models through which people view addiction, its possible to gain better perspective on societys reaction to a phenomenon that after all has been around for thousands of years.

I think most people naturally assume that medical professionals view addiction as a disease, but thats not always true. In fact, many do not.

Clinical medicine focuses on acute illness the need to relieve the most severe presenting problems. In most cases, that translates to short-term care. For heart disease, it can mean stabilizing blood pressure, or emergency intervention in case of a heart attack. With diabetes, it means getting blood sugar back within normal limits. For addictions, acute care usually translates to safe detoxification.

We tend to think of detox as not all that dangerous, but thats because treatment is much, much better than it once was. The stress of severe withdrawal can precipitate a significant health crisis in a vulnerable patient. Seizures and delirium were once common, and untreated alcohol withdrawal can be fatal. It hardly ever is, but again, thats because of improved treatment.

Why Some People Say Addiction Is Not A Disease

Some people think addiction cannot be a disease because it is caused by the individuals choice to use substances. While the first use may be by choice, once the brain has been changed by addiction, most experts believe that the person loses control of their behavior.

Choice does not determine whether something is a disease. Heart disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer involve personal choices like diet, exercise, sun exposure, etc. A disease is what happens in the body as a result of those choices.

Others argue that addiction is not a disease because some people with addiction get better without treatment. People with a mild substance use disorder may recover with little or no treatment. People with the most serious form of addiction usually need intensive treatment followed by lifelong management of the disease. However, some people with severe addiction stop drinking or using other substances without treatment, usually after experiencing a serious family, social, occupational, physical or spiritual crisis. Others achieve recovery by attending self-help meetings without receiving much, if any, professional treatment. In all cases, professional treatment and a range of recovery supports should be available and accessible to anybody who develops a substance use disorder. Addiction is a treatable disease.

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How To Treat Addiction As A Disease

Individuals can receive personalized therapy. Attending a 12-Step program can help many people, but it doesnt work for everyone.

You can try dialectical behavioral therapy. It is a form of talk therapy in which a therapist teaches a patient positive behaviors.

They learn distress tolerance, distracting themselves from difficult situations. They develop mindfulness, finding peace within themselves. These skills can diminish the environmental factors that can cause addiction.

Physical therapy can help mitigate pain and anxiety, which addiction can cause. An individual can go through detoxification, cleansing their body from drugs in their system.

Some people have comorbidity. They have addiction alongside another disease like bipolar disorder. Many therapies treat both conditions at the same time, allowing a person to live a full life.

What Are The Solutions For Addiction

Phases of Addiction Discovery Cards Group Starter Kit  R1 Learning

According to the American Addiction Centers, cognitive behavioral therapy is a valuable treatment tool because it can be used for many different types of addictions, including, but not limited to, food addiction, alcohol addiction, and prescription drug addiction. Not only can CBT help you recognize your unhealthy behavior patterns, but it can also help you learn to identify triggers and develop coping skills.

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The Genetic Model Of Addictions

  • The genetic model posits a genetic predisposition to certain behaviors. It is frequently noted that certain addictions “run in the family,” and while researchers continue to explore the extent of genetic influence, there is strong evidence that genetic predisposition is often a factor in dependency. Researchers have had difficulty assessing differences, however, between social causes of dependency learned in family settings and genetic factors related to heredity.

Research Into The Disease Model Of Addiction

Addiction is a disease affecting the incentive circuitry in the brain as related to motivation and pleasure, creating changes in behaviour, emotions and cognition. The debate over whether addiction is a disease or a behavioural problem has led to much research and garnered many criticisms both for and against it. Research on the neurological basis of addiction has proven that some people may have traits that make them more prone to addiction. This research has helped scientists understand what parts of the brain are involved in addiction, and what functions they perform among healthy individuals.

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The Social Education Model Of Addiction

The harm reduction model of drug addiction treatment | Mark Tyndall

This model believes that addiction is a learned behavior that comes from cognitive processes, modeling influences, and genetic and behavioral influences. Theorists emphasize human-environment interactions as the key to shaping addiction behavior. They believe that imitating behavior one has observed as well as being influenced by role models is part of forming the behavior and treating it.

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What Is The Best Treatment Model

There is no single best treatment model, which is to be expected given that there is no singularly true model of addiction itself. Theres something to learn from all the major theories on what addiction is and how to treat it, and taking whats good from each model helps a rehab remain dynamic and capable of offering personalized addiction treatment.

Other Models Of Addiction

The most common alternate model for addiction is the moral model. It treats addiction as a moral failing, rooted in defects in the persons character. This model stigmatizes people with addiction and has been abandoned by most medical professionals.

But other models provide useful concepts for treatment. The psycho-dynamic model links addiction to problems in childhood. This can help with inpatient practices like cognitive behavioral therapy.

The social learning model focuses on the experience of being under the influence. It notes that addiction is a learned behavior that people engage in for pleasure. This can help professionals understand the environmental factors of addiction.

The socio-cultural model looks at societal influences. It notes that disadvantaged communities have higher rates of drug use, requiring social justice measures to correct. This model encourages treatment centers to provide support for BIPOC, LGBTQIA+, and other communities.

Public health models examine how addiction creates national health problems. It helps policymakers draft measures like drug education and community awareness. It is less useful for individuals trying to get treatment.

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Mission Statement Of Social Model Of Addiction Treatment

  • To create environments promoting recovery, personal responsibility, and mutual self help
  • To help communities prevent and reduce alcohol, other drug, and mental health related problems through positive social change
  • To share research and knowledge through training, consultation, and educational initiatives
  • To maintain fiscal strength which ensures quality, growth, and the ability to serve all people in need
  • To provide cost-effective services that achieve the best and highest use of public and private resources

The Stages Of Change Model Of Overcoming Addiction

The VEAR model of addiction (Vulnerability, Exposure, Addiction ...

John C. Umhau, MD, MPH, CPE is board-certified in addiction medicine and preventative medicine. He is the medical director at Alcohol Recovery Medicine. For over 20 years Dr. Umhau was a senior clinical investigator at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of the National Institutes of Health .

The stages of change or transtheoretical model is a way of describing the process by which people overcome addiction. The stages of change can be applied to a range of other behaviors that people want to change, but have difficulty doing so, but it is most well-recognized for its success in treating people with addictions.

This model was developed from research looking at how change occurs in natural recovery from addictions. It has been embraced by health care providers seeking to move away from confrontational and pathological approaches toward motivational and person-centered approaches, such as motivational interviewing.

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Brain Disease Model Cant Make Sense Of Contrary Research

The brain disease model is far too limited to make sense of research that indicates addiction cannot be reduced to the effects of a drug on the brain.

A growing number of studies say that addiction is based on environment. We can pin the origins of this new way of thinking about addiction to 1958, when Dwight Heath published his study of a group of people in Bolivia who regularly drank a lot of alcohol and yet had no alcoholism.

According to the brain disease model, the alcohol hijacks the brain leading to compulsive use. But if these Bolivians drank so much alcohol, why was there no alcoholism?

Similarly, if the brain disease model were accurate, it should not really be possible to use ecstasy, cocaine, crystal meth, heroin, or other drugs recreationally. Brain scientist Carl Hart tells us that this is what he learned in school. Drugs hijack the brain, rendering the drug user impotent to stop using. After Hart started researching drug use, however, he found plenty of evidence that people were not at the mercy of drugs. In fact, he pointed to research that indicated lots of people use hard drugs recreationally without becoming addicted.

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