Comorbidity Between Sud And Other Psychiatric Disorders
SUD is defined as a problematic pattern of using substances which lead to impairment in daily life or distress. These substances include: alcohol, cannabis, phencyclidine, other hallucinogen, inhalants, opioid, sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic, stimulant , and tobacco. The diagnosis of SUD is based on a set of behaviors related to substance consumption these behaviors are grouped into four main categories, namely, impaired control, social impairment, risky use, and pharmacological indicators . In DSM-IV, SUD includes substance dependence and substance abuse. The former refers to a physiological and/or psychological dependence on substance. The latter is a less severe symptom presentation than substance dependence. A person with a substance abuse may continue using substance despite problems in various life domains. In DSM-5 , the abuse and dependence criteria were combined into a single SUD diagnosis.
Elad Lax, Moshe Szyf, in, 2018
When To Contact A Doctor
Anyone using substances, even socially, should discuss them with a doctor to ensure safe use and monitor for signs or symptoms of addiction.
However, a person with addiction may not be ready or willing to seek professional medical help, regardless of the negative impacts it is having on their health and wellness.
If a person experiences a substance overdose, those around them should seek emergency medical assistance immediately. A person who has recovered from an overdose may want to seek professional help to treat their addiction.
When a person is ready and wants help with their addiction, they may wish to contact a medical professional to discuss options for treatment. These options include rehab, therapy, detox, and medication.
Medicinal advances and progress in diagnosis have helped the medical community develop various ways to manage and resolve addiction.
Some methods include:
- medical devices to treat withdrawal
- treating related psychological factors, such as depression
- ongoing care to reduce the risk of relapse
Addiction treatment is highly personalized and often requires the support of the individuals community or family.
Treatment can take a long time and may be complicated. Addiction is a chronic condition with a range of psychological and physical effects. Each substance or behavior may require different management techniques.
A person with addiction can find many organizations that may help them. A person can also call a hotline for help with their addiction.
What Are The Warning Signs Of Drug Addiction
Sometimes the warning signs of alcohol misuse or abuse are very noticeable. Other times, they can take longer to surface. When drug addiction is discovered in its early stages, the chance for a successful recovery increases significantly.
Common signs of drug addiction include:
- Loss of control
- Continued problems despite negative consequences
- Spending less time on activities that used to be necessary, such as hanging out with family and friends, exercising, or pursuing hobbies or other interests
- Drop in attendance and performance at work or school
- Taking serious risks in order to obtain ones drug of choice
- Acting out in personal relationships, particularly if someone is attempting to address their substance problems
- Going out of ones way to hide the amount of drugs taken
- Serious changes or deterioration in hygiene or physical appearance
- Needing to use more and more of the drug in order to produce the same effect
- Withdrawal symptoms such as shakiness, trembling, sweating, nausea, or fatigue
If you feel that drug addiction is taking a toll on your life, its important to find quality treatment that can help you overcome addiction.
Recommended Reading: Can You Get Addicted To Alcohol
Common Symptoms Of Drug Abuse
Drug abuse can cause problems in interpersonal relationships, at home, on the job, and with the law. Symptoms of drug abuse related to these problems include:
Craving the drug despite difficulties obtaining it or wanting to quit
Deterioration of relationships
Deterioration of school or work performance
Difficulty holding a job
Disengagement from nondrug-related activities
Increasing time spent thinking about, obtaining, using, and recovering from the drug
Leaving responsibilities unfulfilled
Needing higher doses to get the same effect
Using a drug to avoid its withdrawal symptoms
Using drugs before or during activities where safety is a concern
Is Alcohol A Drug
One of the most common misconceptions is that alcohol is not a drug. Though legal, alcohol is a mind-altering substance. When taken in combination with other drugs, the effects can be deadly, but Origins has helped countless men and women overcome alcoholism and rebuild their lives through our proven treatment methods.
Also Check: How Long Does Addiction Last
If Taking Drugs Makes People Feel Good Or Better What’s The Problem
When they first use a drug, people may perceive what seem to be positive effects. They also may believe they can control their use. But drugs can quickly take over a person’s life. Over time, if drug use continues, other pleasurable activities become less pleasurable, and the person has to take the drug just to feel normal. They have a hard time controlling their need to take drugs even though it causes many problems for themselves and their loved ones. Some people may start to feel the need to take more of a drug or take it more often, even in the early stages of their drug use. These are the signs of an addiction.
Even relatively moderate drug use poses dangers. Consider how a social drinker can become intoxicated, get behind the wheel of a car, and quickly turn a pleasurable activity into a tragedy that affects many lives. Occasional drug use, such as misusing an opioid to get high, can have similarly disastrous effects, including impaired driving and overdose.
Drug Addiction Treatment: Is There Hope
It is possible to get drug addiction treatment in rehab centers regardless of which state one lives in. Rehab clients are offered a wide variety of drug addiction treatment methods to choose from. There are tens of thousands of outpatient and inpatient rehab centers, 12- and non-12-step programs, and traditional or holistic therapy centers across the country. Clients can choose to attend a center close to home or travel for rehab. Drug users often do not realize they have a problem until the substance has become the most important part of their lives. Family members and friends are frequently the first to notice that things have gone too far. Getting and staying clean necessitates an integrative approach. First, the user needs to undergo detox to get the drugs out of his or her system. Withdrawal is a dangerous stage of the process. An addict should never attempt to detox alone as withdrawal symptoms can be fatal, and withdrawal medication needs to be administered by a doctor. Although it is a challenge to get and stay sober, it can be achieved, and many people have been able to kick the habit after undergoing treatment.
Read Also: How To Get Over Video Game Addiction
When Does Drug Addiction Start
Most drug use begins in adolescence, often with experimentation with prescription drugs, cigarettes or alcohol . While almost half of 12th-graders admit to taking an illicit substance at some time in their lives, drug addiction information shows the vast majority of these people will “phase out” of drug use and never meet the criteria for drug addiction or drug abuse.
Can Doctors Prescribe Otc Drugs
While certain OTC medications may be recommended by your doctor, they dont require a prescription to purchase. OTC drugs typically treat conditions that are easy to self-diagnose, such as headaches, colds and allergies, and can be purchased at grocery stores, drug stores, convenience stores and supermarkets.
Recommended Reading: How To Get Help With Food Addiction
Chronic Disease And Relapses
For many addicts, addiction can become a chronic illness, meaning that they can have relapses similar to relapses that can happen with other chronic diseasessuch as diabetes, asthma, and hypertensionwhen patients fail to comply with their treatment. These relapses can occur even after long periods of abstinence. The addict can take action to enter remission again. But he remains at risk of another relapse. The ASAM notes “Without treatment or engagement in recovery activities, addiction is progressive and can result in disability or premature death.”
The Historical Development Of Substance Use Disorder Diagnoses
Before emergence of the official diagnostic nomenclature, a range of concepts were coined to describe the problematic use of substances: terms such as addiction, inebriety, intemperance, alcoholism, euphomania, and others . Many of them reflecting a view of addiction as a moral deficiency. Later, it was suggested that substance use disorders be subclassified into a subtype with physical dependence and a subtype without dependence .
In 1952 with the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual , only one classification was possible for drugs and one for alcohol . These were listed under sociopathic personality deviance, a section that also contained antisocial behaviour and deviant sexuality. These behaviours were assumed to be dangerous to society, and generally, people who exhibited such behaviours were thought incapable of changing. The ICD-7, published in 1957, also used the term drug addiction, and subclassified alcoholism into three subcategories: chronic, acute and unspecified.
Also Check: How To Curb Food Addiction
The Nature Of Drug Addiction And Dependence
If opium were the only drug of abuse and if the only kind of abuse were one of habitual, compulsive use, discussion of addiction might be a simple matter. But opium is not the only drug of abuse, and there are probably as many kinds of abuse as there are drugs to abuse or, indeed, as maybe there are persons who abuse. Various substances are used in so many different ways by so many different people for so many different purposes that no one view or one definition could possibly embrace all the medical, psychiatric, psychological, sociological, cultural, economic, religious, ethical, and legal considerations that have an important bearing on addiction. Prejudice and ignorance have led to the labelling of all use of nonsanctioned drugs as addiction and of all drugs, when misused, as narcotics. The continued practice of treating addiction as a single entity is dictated by custom and law, not by the facts of addiction.
The Other Side Of The Addiction Concept
Putting a theme on the agenda is not the same as successfully resolving the problem. The addiction concept can be used for other purposes than simple awareness raising. For instance, patients may use the addiction concept to distance their own use of a substance from others use, and therefore in fact make light of their use.
Recommended Reading: What Is The Best Treatment For Addiction
Can Addiction Be Treated Successfully
Yes. Addiction is a treatable, chronic disorder that can be managed successfully. Research shows that combining behavioral therapy with medications, if available, is the best way to ensure success for most patients. The combination of medications and behavioral interventions to treat a substance use disorder is known as medication-assisted treatment. Treatment approaches must be tailored to address each patients drug use patterns and drug-related medical, psychiatric, environmental, and social problems.
What Is Drug Addiction Drug Addiction Information
Drug addiction is a serious and expensive societal problem with the U.S. Surgeon General identifying control of drug abuse a top priority in the Healthy People 2010 goals for the nation.1 Drug addiction is also a serious problem for individuals with up to 13% of Americans abusing alcohol and 25% of Americans smoking cigarettes.2
Drug addiction is not a character flaw or a lack of willpower but is actually a mental illness and should be treated as a medical issue, just as any other illness.
Recommended Reading: What Types Of Addictions Are There
Understanding The Dependence Vs Addiction Debate
The difference between addiction and dependence can be difficult to understand. Some organizations have different definitions, use the words interchangeably or even abandon both terms altogether. Because of this lack of consistency, some ground rules can help differentiate between the two terms.
When people use the term dependence, they are usually referring to a physical dependence on a substance. Dependence is characterized by the symptoms of tolerance and withdrawal. While it is possible to have a physical dependence without being addicted, addiction is usually right around the corner.
Top 10 Rehab Questions
Addiction is marked by a change in behavior caused by the biochemical changes in the brain after continued substance abuse. Substance use becomes the main priority of the addict, regardless of the harm they may cause to themselves or others. An addiction causes people to act irrationally when they dont have the substance they are addicted to in their system.
Addiction encompasses both a mental and physical reliance on a given substance.
What Is Drug Addiction
Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking, continued use despite harmful consequences, and long-lasting changes in the brain. It is considered both a complex brain disorder and a mental illness. Addiction is the most severe form of a full spectrum of substance use disorders, and is a medical illness caused by repeated misuse of a substance or substances.
You May Like: Do I Have An Addiction
Learning And The Environment
The complexity of environmental influences on drug and alcohol use suggests that cultural and psychological mechanisms must be taken into account. Cultural and psychological mechanisms have been suggested by symbolic interactionism and social learning theory. In a classical article, Becoming a marijuana user, Howard Becker presented a model for learning the correct way to interpret the effects of cannabis through social interaction with other users. His point of view was that cannabis did not give euphoria until the user learns to recognize the effects and connect them with drug use and learns to enjoy the sensations he perceives.
Several developments have been made in this area of theory, and Becker’s radical view is now generally considered obsolete. Social learning theory has suggested several potentially important mechanisms . For instance, expectations about drug effects can have an impact on both the effects of drug use and consumptive behaviour . The environmental factors that influence substance use in humans are in summary more cultural than socio-economic. The right to drink alcohol has in Western societies been a symbol of independence and power that has been associated with the Caucasian adult male . It is the symbolic meaning of substance use and its variations across cultures, times and groups that defines the environmental influences on substance use in humans .
What Are The Causes Of Addiction
There is no single cause of an addiction. Addictions involve complex interactions among brain circuits, genetics, the environment, and a persons life experiences.1 Researchers have identified a number of potential risk factors that may contribute to a person developing an addiction to drugs or alcohol. These factors may stem from various areas, including a persons biology, environment, and development.7 These risk factors include:7
- Presence of a co-occurring mental health disorder.
- Friend groups.
- Family life.
- Traumatic experiences.
There isnt one specific risk factor that can predict whether or not someone gets addicted to a substance.7 Addiction is often associated with a combination of these factors. The more risk factors a person has, the greater the chance that taking drugs could lead to addiction.7
Some common motivations for use and/or misuse of substances can include:5
- Trying to feel betterusing substances to improve mood or soothe pain.
- To perform betterusing some substances may make people feel like they can focus better at work or in school.
Curiositysome people may want to experiment or feel pressured by others.
Recommended Reading: What Does It Mean To Be In Recovery From Addiction
Addictive Substances: The Anatomy Of Drug Addiction
Not a single one of the 24 million addicts in the country started using drugs with the intent of becoming such. Some try them under peer pressure, thinking it will only happen once, while others resort to them to suppress unpleasant emotions or symptoms of mental disorders. Still others are born into an environment, in which drug usage is prevalent, where family members can abuse or be addicted to drugs. There are no set criteria at present to establish whether someone is likely to start abusing or become addicted to a controlled or illicit substance.
Drug Addiction Common Symptoms
The common symptoms seen in drug addiction can vary from person to person while also depending on the type of drug that has been abused.
It is encouraged to pay heed to the below mentioned symptoms:
- Having the urge to consume the drug frequently.
- Having to increase the quantity of the drug to get the same effect.
- Spending more money on the drug even when one cant afford it.
- Neglecting ones own responsibilities such as work, family, etc.
- Going to the extent of stealing cash in order to purchase the drug, when one doesnt have sufficient funds.
- Spending hours to have the drug in possession. Making sure that one has a stock at home.
- Coming to a realization where one intends on stopping drug consumption because of its negative effects, yet, being unable to resist the urge, returns back to the same old habits.
Don’t Miss: How To Stop Crack Addiction
Applications To Other Addictions And Substance Misuse
Drug dependence, including cocaine and opioid dependence, is one of the most common phenotypes comorbid with AD. Drug dependence has been shown to have a number of characteristics in common with AD, such as response to specific treatments. In fact, drug dependence may share susceptibility genes with AD. Several studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms of OPRM1 may moderate the risk of AD and/or drug dependence . Luo et al. showed that ADH4 may play an important role in AD as well as drug dependence based on association studies of the relationship between the ADH gene cluster and drug dependence. Both the HardyâWeinberg equilibrium and a caseâcontrol comparison revealed that the association of ADH4 gene with drug dependence reached levels of statistical significance that were at least as great as those for AD. Overall, the ADH gene cluster may predominantly contribute to the risk of AD, and ADH4 on the ADH gene cluster may similarly contribute to drug dependence, such as cocaine and opioid.
Cecilia A. Essau, in, 2020