Effects Of Alcohol And Illicit Drugs On Hiv/aids Status
People who inject drugs have a high prevalence of co-infection with tuberculosis, hepatitis, and HIV . Evidence suggests that women who inject drugs often incur added risk by injecting after men, who often procure the drugs and injection equipment . According to , 57 percent of HIV infections among women are attributable to use of injection drugs or intercourse with a person who injects drugs.
Some substances make women more vulnerable to STDs because of physiological changes. For example, women who abuse large amounts of alcohol tend to have drier mucous membranes, which results in abrasions and small tears that allow HIV easier access to the bloodstream during intercourse .
Douching increases vulnerability to HIV by removing protective bacteria .
Since timely treatment for HIV/AIDS can virtually eliminate the chance of a pregnant woman passing the infection to her fetus, all women with substance use histories should have an HIV/AIDS evaluation at the first sign of any possible pregnancy.
Getting Help For Addictions
Addiction is a treatable condition. Whatever the addiction, there are lots of ways you can seek help. You could see your GP for advice or contact an organisation that specialises in helping people with addictions.
You can use the following online directories to find addiction treatment services in your area:
Which Drugs Are Abused
- Examples: oxycodone , hydrocodone , and meperidine
- Medical uses: Opioids are used to treat pain or relieve coughs or diarrhea.
- How they work: Opioids attach to opioid receptors in the central nervous system , preventing the brain from receiving pain messages.
2. Central Nervous System Depressants
- Examples: phenobarbital , diazepam , and alprazolam
- Medical uses: CNS depressants are used to treat anxiety, tension, panic attacks, and sleep disorders.
- How they work: CNS depressants slow down brain activity by increasing the activity of a neurotransmitter called GABA. The result is a drowsy or calming effect.
- Examples: methylphenidate and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine
- Medical uses: Stimulants can be used to treat narcolepsy and ADHD.
- How they work: Stimulants increase brain activity, resulting in greater alertness, attention, and energy.
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When To Seek Medical Care
If you have any questions, you could call your doctor, but if you are in doubt whether someone needs immediate medical attention, you should go directly to a hospital emergency department.
If you are concerned that you or someone else has taken an overdose, it is very important that you seek medical help immediately. You should go to the nearest emergency department or call 911 for help. After someone takes an overdose, the effects may not become immediately obvious.
It will assist the doctors if you bring the pill containers with you because it helps them determine the number and type of pills taken.
Why Do Only Some People Become Addicted After Substance Abuse
There are risk factors that can make a person more susceptible to developing an addiction. These can include biological, environmental, and developmental factors such as:
- The presence of certain mental disorders
- Past physical or sexual abuse
- Early exposure to drugsTaking drugs at an early age
- Lack of parental supervision
Although there are many different reasons why some people may become addicted to drugs while others do not, the fact remains that the longer an individual misuses a dangerous substance, the more likely they are to become addicted to it. It is important to remember that substance abuse is always dangerous, no matter what your situation or background may be.
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Can Neurological Complications Arise From Withdrawal
Neurological complications may result from withdrawal of certain substances. Medically supervised detox may help to reduce the likelihood or severity of many of these risks. You will receive constant monitoring and supervision as well as medication to address any symptoms or complications that may arise as a result of withdrawal.21
Withdrawal from substances like alcohol and benzodiazepines may also present a risk of withdrawal seizures.21,22 top Seizures can be dangerous because you can suffer from falls or injuries or develop a potentially lethal condition known as status epilepticus, which is when you have a seizure that lasts more than 5 minutes or when seizures occur too often in too short a time span.23
Cocaine Use And Birth Outcomes
According to reviews of several studies conducted during the late 1980s and early 1990s, there are a variety of adverse effects of cocaine use during pregnancy . Studies reported that cocaine-exposed infants had smaller head circumference lower birth weight and length irritability poor interactive abilities and an increased incidence of stillbirth, prematurity, and sudden infant death syndrome . Other studies dispute many previously reported severe effects of prenatal exposure of cocaine on the offspring. of the literature found that the most consistent effects were small size and less-than-optimal motor performance. found no evidence of the previously reported devastating effects of prenatal cocaine exposure. followed a cohort of cocaine-exposed infants from birth to age 6 although they found lower weight and head circumference, they found no difference in developmental scores between cocaine-exposed and noncocaine-exposed infants. However, other evidence suggests that children exposed to cocaine during the first trimester were smaller on all growth parameters at 7 and 10 years of age compared with children who were not exposed to cocaine . This longitudinal analysis indicated that the disparity in growth between both groups did not converge over time.
Note to Clinicians.
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Physiological Effects Of Tobacco Use
The health risks associated with nicotine use are considerable, particularly among women. In comparison with men, women who smoke show higher disease risk regardless of smoking level or intensity . Currently, cancer is the second leading cause of death among women, with mortality rates higher for lung cancer than breast cancer. According to the , women who smoke:
Have lower bone densities and an increased risk for hip fracture after menopause.
Warning Signs Of Prescription Drug Abuse
In recent years, prescription drug abuse has become an escalating problem, most commonly involving opioid painkillers, anti-anxiety medications, sedatives, and stimulants. Many people start taking these drugs to cope with a specific medical problemtaking painkillers following injury or surgery, for example. However, over time, increased doses are needed to achieve the same level of pain relief and some users can become physically dependent, experiencing withdrawal symptoms if they try to quit.
One of the earliest warning signs of a developing problem is going through the medication at a faster-than-expected rate. In other cases, people start abusing medication not prescribed for them in order to experience a high, relieve tension, increase alertness, or improve concentration.
To avoid developing problems with a prescription medication, its important to take it only as directed, use the lowest dose for the shortest period possible, and to talk to your doctor about other methods of treating the problem. Being aware of any signs of dependency can help identify prescription drug problems at an early stage and help to prevent them progressing into an addiction.
Warning signs of commonly abused prescription drugs
Anti-anxiety medications, sedatives, and hypnotics : Contracted pupils drunk-like, slurred speech, difficulty concentrating, clumsiness poor judgment, drowsiness, slowed breathing.
Which Substance Might Lead To Potentially Dangerous Addictions If Abused
Answer: over the counter medications
anything with nicotine in it like cigarettes, and anything with alcohol.
Body cells make up an organism’s tissues and organs, which are needed for normal operation. Sex cells are required for species reproduction.
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People who suffer from anorexia can become very malnourished,and,dehydrated which malnutrition can make you very tired with a lack of energy,and,eventually you will start to starve to death.
There are many other kinds of eating disorders with many other symptoms
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Understanding The Addiction Cycle
Addiction tends to follow a pattern known as the addiction cycle. First the individual uses the substance, and if they enjoy the experience, they are motivated to use again, and again, initiating a pattern of misuse. As the individual begins to use more frequently, they enter the abuse phase of the cycle. They use the substance to escape reality or satisfy cravings as the body develops a tolerance and dependence to the substance. Soon the individual is addicted, with altered brain chemistry and structure, which causes them to make drug seeking and using the center of their life, despite the many mental, physical, emotional, social and financial consequences they may be suffering. They may attempt to quit, and they may even succeed, but addiction is very powerful, and can lead to relapse even after an individual is past the physical withdrawal phase of addiction. With relapse, the cycle of addiction begins again. Breaking this cycle will require professional rehab treatment.
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What Causes Drug Abuse Or Dependence
Cultural and societal factors determine what are acceptable or allowable forms of drug or alcohol use. Public laws determine what kind of drug use is legal or illegal. The question of what type of substance use can be considered normal or acceptable remains controversial. Substance abuse and dependence are caused by multiple factors, including genetic vulnerability, environmental stressors, social pressures, individual personality characteristics, and psychiatric problems. But which of these factors has the biggest influence in any one person cannot be determined in all cases.
Treatment For Nicotine Addiction
Depending on their age, adolescents looking to quit their nicotine use will have a number of pharmaceutical options to aid their treatment like:1
- Bupropion : This antidepressant medication can help mitigate withdrawal symptoms and cravings.
- Nicotine replacement therapies : NRT comes in many forms, such as patches, gums, lozenges, sprays, and inhalers, and helps to wean the user off nicotine by providing either instant or slower, controlled release of various doses of nicotine until use can be tapered down and discontinued altogether.
- Varenicline : This oral medication can stimulate nicotine receptors in the brain to reduce the severity of withdrawal and prevent a return to use.
Behavioral approaches like cognitive behavioral therapy either alone, or in conjunction with NRT methodsmay also help some individuals stop smoking.
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Common Symptoms Of Drug Abuse
Neglecting responsibilities at school, work, or home .
Using drugs under dangerous conditions or taking risks while high, such as driving while on drugs, using dirty needles, or having unprotected sex.
Experiencing legal trouble, such as arrests for disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, or stealing to support a drug habit.
Problems in your relationships, such as fights with your partner or family members, an unhappy boss, or the loss of friends.
Treatment For Teen Substance Abuse
If it is too late for prevention, you may be wondering how you can get your teen into substance abuse treatment. Though treatment options may be offered, in most situations, your teen must consent to their own treatment unless you can prove their behaviors are life-threatening. You cannot force their attendance or participation. This predicament leaves parents and loved ones with fewer opportunities to aid in the adolescents path towards sobriety. However, as parent you can positively influence your child to attend treatment through:
- Open and honest communication. The first step should focus on a clear and direct explanation of your wants, concerns, and suggestions regarding your teen and the state of their substance use. Be sure to remain calm and objective as you communicate your concerns. With some teens, this low-intensity measure will be enough to spark the desire for treatment.
- Interventions. Interventions are a highly intense and emotional strategy to encourage treatment for your adolescent. A formal intervention is a planned and detailed meeting with your teen and the important people in his or her life. Unplanned meetings should be avoided to reduce risk of additional strain on relationships. The guests discuss:20
- The negative impact of substance use.
- The need for active engagement in treatment.
- The consequences of not accepting treatment.
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Effects Of Adderall Abuse On Teens
When people abuse the substance by taking their medication in ways other than prescribed or when taking medication not prescribed to them, they may achieve intended effects like:9
- Increased energy with decreased need for sleep.
- Diminished appetite.
Risks and side effects of abusing Adderall include:9
- Elevated blood pressure and body temperature.
- Irregular heart beat.
Additionally, there is no evidence to support that Adderall will improve the academic or athletic performance of those that abuse the substance.9
What Is Substance Abuse
Substance abuse, is a dangerous relapsing brain disease requiring intensive treatment in a professional setting. Someone who is suffering from substance abuse will have cravings and compulsive drug use that persists even in the face of negative consequences. Although substance abuse may start out as voluntary, over time, the drug changes the way the brain works, leading to tolerance and addiction.
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Substance Use And Abuse In Adolescents
, MD, MPH, Harvard Medical School
Substance use among adolescents ranges from experimentation to severe substance use disorders Overview of Substance-Related Disorders Drugs are an integral part of everyday life for many people, whether the drugs are used for legitimate medical purposes or recreationally … read more . All substance use, even experimental use, puts adolescents at risk of short-term problems, such as accidents, fights, unwanted sexual activity, and overdose. Substance use also interferes with adolescent brain development. Adolescents are vulnerable to the effects of substance use and are at increased risk of developing long-term consequences, such as mental health disorders, underachievement in school, a substance use disorder, and higher rates of addiction, if they regularly use alcohol, marijuana, nicotine, or other drugs during adolescence.
According to national surveys, the proportion of 12th graders who report they have not used any substances in their lifetime has been steadily increasing over the past 40 years. However, at the same time, a broad range of more potent and dangerous products has become available. These products put adolescents who do start using substances at higher risk of developing both short- and long-term consequences.
The substances that are used most by adolescents are alcohol, nicotine , and marijuana.
When Does Substance Abuse Lead To Addiction
Substance abuse can lead to a person feeling physically and psychologically unable to stop using the drug, even if they have the best intentions to quit. Long-term substance abuse intensely affects the brain composition, typically by flooding the brains reward pathway with dopamine. This eventually reduces the individuals ability to experience normal pleasure and happiness without the use of drugs. As a result, someone who is addicted to a substance wont feel good from any normal experience, activity, or interaction except for substance abuse.
The individual is now addicted to the drug. At the same time, chronic drug use creates a tolerance to the substance, meaning the individual will have to take increasing doses of the drug to experience the same effects. If the individual attempts to quit the substance, or even just to cut down, they will experience unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, vomiting, and physical pain. This is the result of their body attempting to function without a substance that it has become reliant upon.
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Treatment For Spice Addiction
Spice/K2 is addictive, and a teen whos been abusing synthetic marijuana in any form may require treatment to maintain abstinence from it.
Because these types of substances are relatively new, specific treatment options and outcomes have not been widely researched. Like other forms of substance treatment, though, the teen may benefit from a treatment plan suited to their unique needs and symptoms.1,14,17
Treatment For Alcohol Addiction
A teen that is addicted to or dependent on alcohol will require professional treatment to manage the condition. It will be essential for the teen to receive a complete health evaluation as treatment commences since the withdrawal syndrome for alcohol can lead to seizures and death in some cases.5,11
Detox programs staffed with medical professionals will help keep the teen patient safe and comfortable as the body rids itself of alcohols toxic influence. Following completion of the detoxification process, the teen may benefit from attending ongoing mental health or substance abuse treatment, including:1,11
- Individual therapy.
- Support group participation.
- Behavioral health interventions and/or medication management for mental health issues.
- Ongoing medication-assisted treatment with medicines such as Campral, Antabuse and naltrexone to reduce the risk of future use.
Alcohol abuse is well-treated by many styles of therapy like:6
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy : A treatment style that focuses on the interactions between ones thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
- Motivational interviewing : A style centered on building motivation for change from within the individual.
- Contingency management : A behavioral intervention that provides rewards for desired behaviors.
- Community reinforcement approach : A multifaceted treatment that involves family, friends, and community resources to benefit the client.
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Treatment For Inhalant Addiction
If your teen smells like chemicals or has stains, like from paint or glue, on their body or clothing, they may be abusing inhalants. Contact a treatment support advisor today by calling for rehab options for your teen.
Treatment will involve behavioral strategies tailored to the teen since there are no specific substance abuse interventions or strategies shown to be more effective for inhalant use.6,17
Effects Of Opioid Abuse On Teens
Prescription opioids depress the central nervous system and can cause harmful effects like:10
- Confusion and reduced decision-making skills.
- Slowed pulse and lower blood pressure.
- Slowed respiration.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Chronic constipation.
When mixed with alcohol or other depressants, the risks are elevated and the user will be severely at risk of overdose, coma, and death. Deaths are alarmingly common, with opioid pain medications being linked to 19,000 deaths in 2014, according to NIDA.10
As use continues, the body grows dependent on the drug, and users may begin to feel as if they require substances like OxyContin to function normally. This state of needing the drug to operate as expected indicates physiological dependence. As mentioned above, prescription opioid dependence puts teens at heightened risk of heroin use, as maintaining a prescription pill habit can be extremely expensive, with one pill costing up to $80-$100. Heroin provides a very similar high at a much cheaper cost, so many teens looking to seek their normal high and avoid withdrawals eventually turn to heroin. In fact, nearly half of all adolescents that inject heroin previously abused pain medications.10
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