Tuesday, September 27, 2022

What Percentage Of Individuals Who Use Drugs Become Addicted

Figure 1: Adults Living In The Lowest Income Households Were More Likely To Have Taken Any Drug

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Proportion of adults aged 16 to 59 years who reported using a drug in the last year by total household income, England and Wales, year ending March 2020

Notes:
  • Any drug comprises powder cocaine, crack cocaine, ecstasy, LSD, magic mushrooms, heroin, methadone, amphetamines, methamphetamine, cannabis, ketamine, mephedrone, tranquillisers, anabolic steroids and any other pills, powders or drugs.
  • There was a similar pattern for cannabis use. Those with a total household income less than £10,400 were more likely to have taken cannabis than people in higher income households. However, there were higher proportions of powder cocaine use in the last year for adults living in households with incomes over £52,000 compared with adults in lower income households , £20,800 to £31,200 and £31,200 to 41,600 .

    The year ending March 2020 CSEW also showed that:

    • private renters were more likely to use any drug than social renters and homeowners
    • use of any drug was higher among those living in urban areas compared with those living in rural areas
    • those living in areas classified as Cosmopolitans were more likely to have used any drug in the last year compared with other area types, such as Multicultural metropolitans or Suburbanites

    Prevalence Of Substance Use Disorders

    Over 2% of the world population has an alcohol or illicit drug addiction

    How common is alcohol or drug addiction?

    In the map here we see the share of the population with a substance use disorder. Globally, just over 2% of the world were dependent on alcohol or an illicit drug.

    In some countries its even more common. In the USA and several countries in Eastern Europe, more than 1-in-20 were dependent. In the USA, this was dominated by illicit drug dependence, whereas alcoholism was much more common in Russia and Eastern Europe.

    Alcohol and drug addiction is more common in men

    How does the prevalence of substance use disorders alcohol and illicit drug addiction vary between men and women?

    In this visualization we show this comparison: the share of men with a substance use disorder is shown on the y-axis the share of women on the x-axis. The grey line represents parity: countries which lie along this line have equal prevalence in men and women. In countries which lie above the line, substance use disorders is more common in men.

    Globally, alcohol or drug dependence was twice as common in men as in women: in 2016, 2.4% of men were dependent, versus 1.2% in women. Since all countries lie above the grey line, dependency is more common in men across the world.

    Alcohol use vs. drug use disorders

    Do countries with high rates of alcoholism also have high rates of other drug use disorders? Or does a high prevalence in one mean a low prevalence in the other?

    Figure 1: Those With Lower Personal Well

    Proportion of adults aged 16 to 59 years who reported using a drug in the last year by personal well-being, England and Wales, year ending March 2020

    Notes:
  • Any drug comprises powder cocaine, crack cocaine, ecstasy, LSD, magic mushrooms, heroin, methadone, amphetamines, methamphetamine, cannabis, ketamine, mephedrone, tranquillisers, anabolic steroids and any other pills, powders or drugs.
  • A similar relationship was observed between drug use and feeling that things done in your life are worthwhile. Just over one-third of people who had low levels of this feeling reported using any drug in the last year, compared with 5.8% of those with very high levels.

    Of those who were classified as having low levels of happiness, 24.0% reported using any drug in the last year. This was higher than those who reported medium levels of happiness , high levels of happiness or very high happiness levels . This pattern was similar for individual drugs such as cannabis, powder cocaine and ecstasy.

    Any drug use was also higher among those who experienced high levels of anxiety compared with those who had low levels .

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    Figure : Men Were Nearly Twice As Likely As Women To Have Taken Any Drug

    Proportion of adults aged 16 to 59 years who reported using a drug in the last year by sex, England and Wales, year ending March 2020

    Notes:
  • Any drug comprises powder cocaine, crack cocaine, ecstasy, LSD, magic mushrooms, heroin, methadone, amphetamines, methamphetamine, cannabis, ketamine, mephedrone, tranquillisers, anabolic steroids and any other pills, powders or drugs.
  • Any Class A drug comprises powder cocaine, crack cocaine, ecstasy, LSD, magic mushrooms, heroin, methadone and methamphetamine.
  • The year ending March 2020 Crime Survey for England and Wales also found that the prevalence of any drug use in the last year also varied by a range of other personal characteristics including:

    • full-time students were more likely than any other occupation group to have used any drug in the last year
    • those who were single were more likely to have used a drug in the last year compared with those who were married or in a civil partnership
    • victims of any crime, including fraud in the last year were more likely to have used any drug compared with people that were not a victim of crime

    It is important to note that these demographic factors are not necessarily independently related to drug use and the findings only report on differences between estimates. For example, the relationship between higher drug use and being a student may be driven by age.

    Frequency Of Drug Use In The Last Year

    Reality Check  Most Dont Become Addicted

    In the latest year, while 9.4% of adults aged 16 to 59 years had used any drug in the last 12 months, only 2.1% of adults in this age group were frequent users . A frequent user is defined as having taken any drug more than once a month in the last year. This was similar to the previous year but a significant decrease from the year ending March 20152 . For young adults aged 16 to 24 years the latest estimate of frequent drug use was twice as high as for adults aged 16 to 59 years at 4.3% .

    However, of the adults aged 16 to 59 years who reported having used any drug in the last year, the majority reported that they had only taken them once or twice . This was similar for adults aged 16 to 24 years.

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    Drug Abuse Among Demographics

    Statistics indicate that some demographics and communities face elevated risks of drug abuse and drug disorders.

    • Persons previously abusing drugs and recently released from prison are at the highest risk for overdose as their tolerance to the drug has dropped while being incarcerated.
    • Club drugs such as ecstasy, meth, cocaine, ketamine, LSD, and GHB are primarily used in higher-income settings by young people.
    • Among lower-income users, the most commonly used drugs are inhalants such as paint thinner, gasoline, paint, correction fluid and glue.
    • 6.3 million LGBT+ adults had a substance or mental abuse disorder or both.
    • 7% of LGBT+ adults struggled with illegal drugs.
    • 2% of LGBT+ adults struggled with alcohol abuse.
    • 8% struggled with both illegal drugs and alcohol abuse.
    • 3% indicated a serious mental illness.

    Drug Abuse Among States

    Nearly 70% of law enforcement agencies in the western and midwestern areas of the United States view methamphetamine and fentanyl as the greatest threats to their populations.

    • West Virginia has the nations highest rate of overdose deaths at 51.5 deaths per 100,000 people.
    • Delaware, with 43.8 deaths per 100,000 people.
    • Pennsylvania, with 36.1 deaths per 100,000 people.
    • Ohio, with 35.9 deaths per 100,000 people.

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    Who Is Using Drugs

    People of all demographics choose to use substances, but some groups may be more likely to use drugs than others, as well as being more prone to drug addiction. Here is a summary of published data that shows the groups most likely to use, the types of substances they prefer, and why theyre more likely to indulge.

    Underlying Causes Of Addiction

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    Addiction almost always has one or more underlying causes. The most common underlying causes of addiction include:

    Chronic stress. Many people use drugs or alcohol to reduce stress. People who suffer from chronic stress related to family dysfunction, financial problems, a demanding job, a medical illness, or another source may engage in heavy substance abuse, which can lead to addiction.

    A history of trauma. Survivors of trauma, including physical and sexual abuse, are likely to use drugs or alcohol in an attempt to reduce fear and anxiety, suppress difficult memories, and cope with insomnia and nightmares that may follow a traumatic event. Post-traumatic stress disorder, which often occurs following a trauma, is a common risk factor for substance abuse and addiction.

    Family dysfunction. Unhealthy relationships and a dysfunction household can lead to substance abuse and addiction, especially in cases of abusive relationships. Family dysfunction and the chronic stress that comes with it are another important risk factor for substance abuse.

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    Getting Help For Addictions

    Addiction is a treatable condition. Whatever the addiction, there are lots of ways you can seek help. You could see your GP for advice or contact an organisation that specialises in helping people with addictions.

    You can use the following online directories to find addiction treatment services in your area:

    Number Of People In The Us Who Used Selected Illicit Drugs In The Past Year

    • Although much less used than marijuana, cocaine is still popular in the U.S.. 5,071,000 people reported that they used cocaine in the past year.
    • Crack and heroin users are in the clear minority. Only 882,000 people used crack in the past year, while the number of those who consumed heroin in the same period accounts to 940,000.

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    Addiction To Cocaine/crack Cocaine

    Cocaine is a very powerful, addictive, and stimulating drug. Powdered cocaine is normally a fine white powder, but it can be chemically altered into crystalline rocks that can appear in varying colors depending on the chemicals used in the manufacturing process, ranging from yellow to rose to off white. Cocaine or crack cocaine can be snorted, ingested, smoked, or injected. Take from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, nearly 5 million Americans are regular cocaine users, while an estimated 2.2 million people reported having a substance abuse problem with cocaine or crack cocaine in 2017. In 2017, over one million Americans aged 12 and older had tried cocaine for the first time. In that same year, from data collected by the CDC, cocaine was involved in one out of every five overdose deaths, rising 34 percent from the previous year of 2016.

    Native Hawaiian And Other Pacific Islanders

    Opinion

    The U.S. Census Bureau categorizes Native Hawaii and Other Pacific Islanders as any of the original people from Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.3

    Below youll find the percentages of 12-year-old or older NHOPI who used the following substances in the past year:4

    • Illicit Drug Use: 21.2%
    • Opioids : 1.4%
  • Tobacco: 33.6%
  • Alcohol use: 54.3%
  • According to the 2018 NSDUH, 9.3% of Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders aged 12 and older had a substance use disorder in the past year.4

    NHOPIs tend to abuse substances at rates much higher than the national average and higher than other minority groups. This may be due to the fact that many live on islands that may have limited care available and depressed economies.16

    In addition, easy and regular access to drugs and alcohol at a young age may be common, and NHOPIs may be less likely to seek healthcare than other population groups. NHOPIs may abuse stimulant drugs more often than other ethnic groups, as these drugs are common in their cultures. These drugs may be affordable and easy to obtain.16

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    Drug Addiction Statistics In The Uk

    In 2018, 4,359 people died from drug poisoning in the UK.¹ Of these deaths, 2,917 were from drug misuse, which was an increase of 17% from the previous year.

    Using the latest public surveys conducted by the NHS, Public Health England and the UK Government, Manor Clinic has compiled the key statistics on drug use and misuse in the UK.

    Addiction In Families Statistics

    Alcoholism and drug addiction have both genetic and environmental causes. More than 28 million Americans are children of alcoholics, and nearly 11 million of those are under the age of 18.

    Here are some statistics regarding addiction in families:

    • Children of addicts are eight times more likely to develop an addiction.
    • A 1985 study suggests a strong genetic component, particularly for the onset of alcoholism in males. Sons of alcoholic fathers are four times more likely to become alcoholics.
    • The use of substances by parents and their adolescent children is strongly correlated. Generally, if parents use drugs, sooner or later their children will as well.
    • Children who use drugs are more likely to have one or more parents who also use drugs.
    • Children of addicted parents experience greater physical and mental health problems and higher health and welfare costs than do children from non-addicted families.
    • A child who perceives that a parent is more permissive about the use of drugs is more likely to use drugs themselves.
    • A relationship between parental addiction and child abuse has been documented in a large proportion of child abuse and neglect cases.

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    Prescription Polydrug Abuse Is Especially Common

    There is substantial research which shows a correlation between prescription opioid painkillers and heroin. Many individuals who start using prescription painkillers eventually transition to heroin because its cheaper and more widely available. Individuals who use one of these drugs may use the other, or even use them with other drugs.

    An example furnished by SAMHSA explains, For example, 72.1 percent of past year heroin users and 5.9 percent of past year alcohol users misused pain relievers in the past year.

    The American Family Physician details that An estimated 80 percent of benzodiazepine abuse is part of polydrug abuse, most commonly with opioids. The article notes studies which indicate that:

    • Of heroin users73 percent used benzodiazepines more often than weekly.
    • From 5 percent to as many as 90 percent of methadone users are also regular users of benzodiazepines.
    • 3 to 41 percent of alcoholic persons report that they abused benzodiazepines at some time, often to modulate intoxication or withdrawal effects.

    Any polydrug abuse is dangerous, but these combinations are especially so. Opioids, including heroin and prescription painkillers, alcohol, and benzodiazepines are all central nervous system depressants. What this means is that each works on this system to slow certain function within your body which sustain life support.

    Whos Most Likely To Become Addicted

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    Each personâs body and brain are different. People also react differently to drugs. Some love the feeling the first time they try it and want more. Others hate it and never try again.

    Not everyone who uses drugs becomes addicted. But it can happen to anyone and at any age. Some things may raise your chances of addiction, including:

    • Family history. Your genes are responsible for about half of your odds. If your parents or siblings have problems with alcohol or drugs, youâre more likely as well. Women and men are equally likely to become addicted.
    • Early drug use. Childrenâs brains are still growing, and drug use can change that. So taking drugs at an early age may make you more likely to get addicted when you get older.
    • Mental disorders. If youâre depressed, have trouble paying attention, or worry constantly, you have a higher chance of addiction. You may turn to drugs as a way to try to feel better. A history of trauma in your life also makes you more likely to have addiction.
    • Troubled relationships. If you grew up with family troubles and arenât close to your parents or siblings, it may raise your chances of addiction.

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    Deaths From Substance Use

    Substance use is indirectly and directly responsible for 11.8 million deaths each year

    How many people die from substance use each year?To answer this, we need to define two aspects: what substances i.e. drugs do we include in this definition and what do we mean by a death caused by substance use does this include only direct deaths or also the increased risk of premature death from moderate, long-term drug use?

    The Global Burden of Disease is a major global study on the causes and risk factors for death and disease published in the medical journal The Lancet.2,3

    The Global Burden of Disease study identifies and provides estimates for substance use deaths through both pathways. The first is a direct death from a substance use disorder. A substance use disorder is characterized by meeting the criteria for drug dependence as defined by the World Health Organizations International Classification of Diseases .4 Alcohol dependence or illicit drug dependence are included in substance use disorders deaths from these disorders can be considered drug overdoses, with the terms being used interchangeably in the study literature.5

    In the visualization we summarize the results of the Global Burden of Disease study on the number of deaths attributed to substance use: this is differentiated between indirect deaths as a risk factor from smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and direct deaths from substance use disorders of alcohol and illicit drugs .

    Number Of People In The Us Who Used Crack In Their Lifetime From 2009 To 2016

    • Crack is one of the most addictive recreational drugs in the world. Fortunately, its not as popular in the U.S. as other, less harmful drugs. The use of crack noted a very low increase from 2009 to 2016. Only 386,000 more people reported to have the drug in their lifetime in comparison to 2009.
    • The use of crack in the U.S. peaked in 2014, reaching 9,424,000 one-time users.
    • The popularity of crack in the U.S. is a sinusoidal trend, but we can observe a steady decrease in its use since 2014. The number of people who admitted to have used crack in their lifetime dropped by 648,000 in two years.

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