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Medication Used For Drug Addiction

What Is An Inhalant

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The term inhalants is used to designate a variety of chemical compounds that are inhaled through the mouth or nose as a vapor or gas. It is a somewhat broad grouping of substances and includes several volatile solvents, gases, aerosol sprays, and nitrites. The effects of different inhalants include alcohol-like intoxication, sedation, and mild euphoria. Though toxicity varies by substance, chronic use of certain inhalants can be dangerous and debilitating. Find out more about the harmful effects of inhalant use and how to help an inhalant abuser here.

Do Rehab Centers Use Medication For Treatment Of Cocaine Withdrawal Symptoms

There are medications to help with detox and the treatment of cocaine withdrawal symptoms, but the use of medication does depend on the specific facility. So, do rehab centers use medication for cocaine use disorder treatment? Often yes, but it does depend.

Currently, there arent any FDA-approved medications that are specifically designed for use during the cocaine withdrawal process of detox. However, there are certain medications that may be prescribed to help with the management of withdrawal symptoms so that the patient can be as comfortable and safe as possible.

Once you select a treatment facility, you will be assessed by medical professionals to determine the best treatment strategy for you. That assessment will include the decisions about which medications, if any, should be incorporated in your individual treatment plan.

Who Is At Risk For Substance Use Disorder

Anyone can develop a substance use disorder. No one thing can predict whether a person may develop an addiction. You may be more prone to drug use due to:

  • Biology: The persons genetic makeup, gender, ethnicity and mental health issues may raise his or her risk for developing an addiction. About two-thirds of people in addiction treatment are men. Particular ethnicities are at higher risk for substance use disorder. This is true for Native Americans.
  • Environment: Surroundings can affect the likelihood of developing substance use disorder. For example, stress, peer pressure, physical or sexual abuse and early exposure to drugs can raise the risk.
  • Age: Teenagers who start taking drugs are especially at risk. The parts of the brain that control judgment, decisions and self-control are not fully developed. Teens are more likely to engage in risky behaviors. In a developing brain, drugs can cause changes that make addiction more likely.

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How Long Does Mat Last

Medication assisted treatment durations will vary from one individual to the next, depending on factors such as addiction severity, clinician recommendations, patient wishes, overall health, and the rate of recovery progress. Some individuals may remain on an MAT regimen for years. If at any point a decision is reached between you and your doctor to discontinue treatment, youll receive assistance with tapering off the medication when the time is right for you.9

What Happens To The Brain When A Person Takes Drugs

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Most drugs affect the brain’s “reward circuit,” causing euphoria as well as flooding it with the chemical messenger dopamine. A properly functioning reward system motivates a person to repeat behaviors needed to thrive, such as eating and spending time with loved ones. Surges of dopamine in the reward circuit cause the reinforcement of pleasurable but unhealthy behaviors like taking drugs, leading people to repeat the behavior again and again.

As a person continues to use drugs, the brain adapts by reducing the ability of cells in the reward circuit to respond to it. This reduces the high that the person feels compared to the high they felt when first taking the drugan effect known as tolerance. They might take more of the drug to try and achieve the same high. These brain adaptations often lead to the person becoming less and less able to derive pleasure from other things they once enjoyed, like food, sex, or social activities.

Long-term use also causes changes in other brain chemical systems and circuits as well, affecting functions that include:

Despite being aware of these harmful outcomes, many people who use drugs continue to take them, which is the nature of addiction.

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Types Of Prescription Drug Addiction

This page was clinically reviewed by Dr Niall Campbell in June 2020.

There are a number of different types of prescription drug addictions that we are able to treat at Priory, and it is important to understand that each type can result in different prescription drug addiction symptoms and impact on individuals in unique ways.

Any prescription drug can be misused, but the properties and effects of certain medications increase both the likelihood that they will be misused, as well as the potential harm and long-term problems that this misuse can cause.

Other Medications Used In Addiction Treatment

Some drugs have broad or general uses for treatment. Experts are still studying many of these types of drugs to try to find new and effective medicines for managing addiction.

  • Baclofen: Baclofen is a muscle relaxant. It is used to treat muscle pain, spasms and seizures. It is also used to help relieve alcohol and opioid withdrawal because it acts on the same parts of the brain. However, more clinical trials are needed to prove its ability before it can be widely used.
  • Remeron: Remeron is an antidepressant. It is not well understood yet, but it blocks certain receptors in the brain. Taking the drug can help ease some symptoms of withdrawal.
  • Topiramate: Topiramate is used to treat conditions like epilepsy and migraines. Some clinical trials show that it can also help treat alcohol and cocaine addiction.

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Group Therapy For Addiction

Group therapy is where you can go through therapy in a group setting surrounded by either loved ones or people going through the same struggles as you, according to American Addiction Centers.

âThis type of treatment is particularly helpful for addiction and is a component of most addiction programs and has been for many years,â Joseph DeVasto, B.A. M.A. and Program Support Staff Lead at The Ohana Addiction Treatment Center, tells WebMD Connect to Care.

âIt provides a safe environment in which a person can express their feelings and be vulnerable,â DeVasto says.

Group therapy that involves loved ones can be a powerful force to help motivate you not to use those substances anymore. Also, if your group involves others going through treatment, you can bond with them through your shared experiences and support each other towards fully recovering from substance use disorder.

Mat Statistics Effectiveness & Goals

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According to the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health and the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services:5,6

  • 5 million people aged 12 and older had an alcohol use disorder in 2019.
  • 1. million of these people received some sort of substance abuse treatment for AUD.
  • Out of these 1.1 million people, 228,000 received MAT for AUD.
  • In addition, 2.5 million people received alcohol use treatment in 2019 .
  • Out of these 2.5 million people, 286,000 received MAT for alcohol use.
  • Out of 2.3 million people aged 12 and older who received treatment for illicit drug abuse in 2019, 664,000 people received MAT for opioid abuse.
  • Out of 1.6 million people aged 12 and older with an OUD, 294,000 received MAT.
  • 408,550 people received methadone treatment in OTPs in a single-day count in March 2019.
  • 168,428 people received buprenorphine treatment in OTPs in a single-day count in March 2019.

According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration , MAT has been proven to be effective in clinical studies and has been shown to significantly decrease the need for inpatient detox. By reducing the risk of relapse, MAT for opioid use disorder may also lower the risk of contracting HIV or hepatitis C.1

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How Are Medications And Devices Used In Drug Addiction Treatment

Medications and devices can be used to manage withdrawal symptoms, prevent relapse, and treat co-occurring conditions.

Withdrawal. Medications and devices can help suppress withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. Detoxification is not in itself “treatment,” but only the first step in the process. Patients who do not receive any further treatment after detoxification usually resume their drug use. One study of treatment facilities found that medications were used in almost 80 percent of detoxifications . In November 2017, the Food and Drug Administration granted a new indication to an electronic stimulation device, NSS-2 Bridge, for use in helping reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms. This device is placed behind the ear and sends electrical pulses to stimulate certain brain nerves. Also, in May 2018, the FDA approved lofexidine, a non-opioid medicine designed to reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms.

Relapse prevention. Patients can use medications to help re-establish normal brain function and decrease cravings. Medications are available for treatment of opioid , tobacco , and alcohol addiction. Scientists are developing other medications to treat stimulant and cannabis addiction. People who use more than one drug, which is very common, need treatment for all of the substances they use.

  • Co-occuring conditions: Other medications are available to treat possible mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, that may be contributing to the persons addiction.
  • What Else Can Be Done To Succeed At Cocaine Recovery

    A patient is at a greater risk for relapse if they are not receiving a combination of medication with intensive counseling. Along with that, treatment should include behavior modification to help address the causes of cocaine use. Understanding personal triggers will make success more likely.

    The reality is that an individual who is addicted to cocaine is going to have to face some hard truthsnamely, the state of relationships not just with family and friends but colleagues as well. That means a lot of support will be needed from many different sources to help aid and assist in recovery.

    Medication to help treat addiction is just one part of the puzzle. Addiction is a multifaceted issue, so its important to develop a network of trusted professions and peers. Medication might help curb cravings, but until root behavior patterns are dealt with, treatment might not be successful. However, recovery can be an amazingly rewarding experience if all the necessary components of treatment are in place.

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    What Is Drug Addiction

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    Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by compulsive, or uncontrollable, drug seeking and use despite harmful consequences and changes in the brain, which can be long-lasting. These changes in the brain can lead to the harmful behaviors seen in people who use drugs. Drug addiction is also a relapsing disease. Relapse is the return to drug use after an attempt to stop.

    The path to drug addiction begins with the voluntary act of taking drugs. But over time, a person’s ability to choose not to do so becomes compromised. Seeking and taking the drug becomes compulsive. This is mostly due to the effects of long-term drug exposure on brain function. Addiction affects parts of the brain involved in reward and motivation, learning and memory, and control over behavior.

    Addiction is a disease that affects both the brain and behavior.

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    Drug Withdrawal And Detox

    During the initial stages of recovery, the body must rid itself of drugs. This is called the detox period. Detox can last several days to several weeks depending on the drug. Coping with withdrawal symptoms is often the most challenging part of detox. During detox, former drug users experience many uncomfortable symptoms. Some of these may include:

    • Muscle aches

    Different medications are used to treat different withdrawal symptoms. Some of the drugs that physicians prescribe in detox include:

    • Benzodiazepines

      These drugs reduce anxiety and irritability. Anxiety is a common symptom of withdrawal from many drugs, including Cocaine and Opiates like Heroin. Benzos have a sedative effect, which helps ease alcohol withdrawals. Doctors are cautious about prescribing Benzos because they are addictive.

    • Antidepressants

      Without drugs, an addicted person cannot produce natural amounts of happiness-inducing chemicals in their brain. Because theyve relied on drugs to keep them happy for so long, people in detox often experience depression. Antidepressants like Zoloft and Prozac can help relieve these feelings until the brain is able to produce happiness-inducing chemicals on its own again.

    • Clonidine

      Used to treat alcohol and Opiate withdrawals, Clonidine reduces sweating, cramps, muscle aches and anxiety. Clonidine can also stop tremors and seizures.

    Addiction Center is not affiliated with any insurance.

    Medical Detox And Rehab

    Some people choose to detox on their own. This is not only harder but also more dangerous than detoxing with a doctor. Medical detox is the best way to get sober in a safe, comfortable environment. For those addicted to alcohol or Benzos, medical detox is a must.

    A supervised detox is the first step in treating any type of addiction.

    A supervised detox can alleviate health issues. Physicians track the patients heart rate, temperature, breathing rate, and fluid levels. Physicians help relieve any discomfort the patient may be feeling. They also adjust any medication doses according to the patients needs and make long-term plans for medication. Those with separate health issues should also seek medical detox. Withdrawals can complicate problems like high blood pressure. A physician can prevent any issues that may arise from attempting to detox alone.

    Break free from addiction.

    Detox is often a part of inpatient rehabs. In most cases, inpatient rehab takes 30 to 90 days. The first week consists of closely observed detox. Rehab includes other treatments, such as behavioral therapy, to make recovery more successful. If you or a loved one wants to explore rehab options, contact a treatment provider now.

    Jeffrey Juergens

    Reviewed by Certified Addiction Professional: December 7, 2018

    David Hampton

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    Volunteers of America provides inpatient and outpatient treatment for mental health disorders as well as substance abuse treatment in Taunton, MA.

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    Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention

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    The FDA offers these guidelines for safe prescription medication use:

    • Always follow the directions carefully.
    • Don’t raise or lower doses without talking with your doctor first.
    • Never stop taking a medication on your own.
    • Don’t crush or break pills, especially if theyâre time-released.
    • Make sure you know how a drug will affect your driving and other daily tasks.
    • Learn about what can happen if you take a medication with alcohol or other prescription and over-the-counter drugs.
    • Talk honestly with your doctor about any personal or family history of substance abuse.
    • Never allow other people to use your prescription medications, and don’t take theirs.

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    Can Addiction Come Back

    Substance use disorder is a relapsing disease. People who are in recovery from this disease have a higher chance of using drugs again. Recurrence can happen even years after you last took drugs.

    Because of the possibility of relapse, you need ongoing treatment. Your healthcare provider should review your treatment plan with you and change it based on your changing needs. If you have a problem with prescription drugs, including opioids, inform your healthcare providers. They can help you find other options to manage pain.

    Drugs Used For Detox From Stimulants

    Stimulants are psychoactive drugs that increase brain activity and elevate mood, awareness, and alertness. Although stimulants like caffeine are widely used, some stimulant drugs, such as cocaine and methamphetamines, are highly addictive and illegal. Prescription stimulants, including Ritalin, Adderall, and Dexedrine, are also extensively abused. Recovering addicts may need to undergo mediation-assisted detox for stimulant dependence.Symptoms During Stimulant Drug Detoxification Can Be Both Physical and Psychological and Include:

    • Jitteriness

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    Does Insurance Cover Mat Treatments

    Most health insurance plans cover at least a portion of MAT treatment, if not the entirety of MAT treatment. The 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act states that group health insurance plans are required to provide the same benefits for substance abuse disorders as they do for medical or surgical care.10 Additionally, 31 state Medicaid FFS programs covered methadone maintenance treatment provided in outpatient OTPs as of May 2013 specific Medicaid requirements about buprenorphine can vary by state.9 Its advisable to consult your insurance provider or plan administrator to verify your specific benefits.

    To find out more about whether your insurance may cover rehabilitation or MAT at AAC, use the form below.

    Medications To Attenuate Substance Use And Reduce Relapse

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    Disulfiram is the first FDA-approved medication for alcohol dependence and has been available for over 50 years. It works by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase, the enzyme that converts acetaldehyde to acetate in the breakdown of alcohol. As acetaldehyde builds up the disulfiram-ethanol reaction occurs. The DER includes unpleasant and potentially dangerous symptoms such as sweating, nausea, vomiting, facial flushing, tachycardia, hyperventilation, shortness of breath, and hypotension. In severe reactions, arrhythmias and myocardial infarction, seizure, and death can occur. The DER is an aversive state that serves to extinguish an addictive behavior through negative reinforcement and behavioral counterconditioning. By taking the medication daily, the patient knows that he or she will have such a reaction if he or she drinks alcohol. This knowledge, in turn, leads to refraining from drinking. The intended use of disulfiram is to help the patient achieve an initial period of abstinence that facilitates the involvement in psychosocial treatment .

    At the recommended average maintenance dose of 250 mg daily, disulfiram is considered a safe and well-tolerated medication used as an adjunctive pharmacotherapy in an abstinence-oriented treatment setting to prevent alcohol use and relapse.

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