Ethics Approval And Consent To Participate
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The present study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee in the National Cheng Kung University and the Institutional Review Board in the Chi Mei Medical Center . All participants provided written informed consent.
Food Addiction’ And Weight Category
Table 3 shows the breakdown of individuals who met criteria for food addiction’, as assessed by the YFAS 2.0, by weight class. When combining all three obese categories into one, a prevalence of 17.2% of YFAS 2.0 food addiction’ occurred among obese participants. Figure 1 shows the percentage of persons meeting YFAS 2.0 threshold for food addiction’ according to weight category. A significant association was found between BMI and both YFAS 2.0 food addiction’ = 34.61, p < 0.001) and the number of endorsed symptoms , such that individuals with higher BMI reported elevated symptoms of food addiction’. The odds of meeting criteria for YFAS 2.0 food addiction’ was 3 times higher for underweight and 3.5 times higher for obese, when combined into one category, relative to normal-weight participants.
Frequencies of endorsed YFAS 2.0 food addiction’ symptoms, by weight class
YFAS 2.0 food addiction’ by weight class.
The association of YFAS 2.0 food addiction’ and symptoms with weight category appears to be best represented with a J-shaped curve , elevated endorsement rates of YFAS 2.0 symptoms and greater percentage of individuals meeting the YFAS 2.0 food addiction’ threshold were observed for those categorized as underweight and obese grade I , obese grade II and obese grade III , compared to normal weight and overweight .
Study : Myfas 20 Properties Among Non
Participants and Procedures
We recruited a non-clinical sample of 250 participants from the community that stems from a larger sample of 330 persons that has been described previously . Participants were told that the study investigated eating behavior, they engaged freely in the study, and there was no financial compensation. This larger sample was recruited at the University of Tours between May 2014 and May 2015 using a web-based questionnaire that was created using Sphinx software . Out of these 330 initial participants, we excluded individuals that screened positive for anorexia nervosa , bulimia nervosa , and binge eating disorder , as well as individuals who had either a body mass index < 18.5 kg/m2 or a BMI equal to or greater than 30 kg/m2 7 individuals had both a positive screening for an eating disorder and a BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 2 persons had both a positive screening for an eating disorder and a BMI > 30 kg/m2. For more details about the cutoffs used to screen for eating disorders, see . Table 2 presents the descriptive statistics of our final non-clinical sample . Table 3 additionally reports the prevalence, mean number of FA symptoms, and type of FA criteria endorsed in this non-clinical sample.
Table 2 Descriptive statistics of the non-clinical and clinical samples.
Table 3 Non-clinical population : Comparison of the results obtained with the mYFAS 2.0 and the YFAS 2.0 .
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Relationship Of Yfas Outcomes With Other Variables
Across the reviewed studies, YFAS diagnosis and symptom score were associated with a variety of anthropometric measures. Specifically, higher BMIÃ¢s were related to higher rates of FA diagnosis and number of symptoms endorsed . However, in one study of individuals with BN, FA diagnosis and higher symptom scores were associated with a significantly lower BMI . Symptom score was positively correlated with other measures of adiposity including waist-to-hip ratio, percent body fat and trunk fat . One study identified a relationship between YFAS symptom score and weight loss after a seven week behavioral weight loss intervention while a second study found no relationship between weight change after a six month intervention and baseline YFAS outcomes .
In support of the results of the pooled meta-analysis, prevalence of FA diagnosis and number of symptoms reported decreased with increasing age and females were found to have a higher prevalence of FA diagnosis and higher symptom scores . Two studies identified ethnicity differences with one reporting higher FA scores in African Americans and a second reporting prevalence of FA diagnosis to be higher in white females . However, other studies identified no differences in FA prevalence based on ethnicity . Diagnosis of FA was associated with health indicators including high cholesterol, smoking and decreased physical activity in one large scale epidemiological study .
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To Answer This Question Ask Yourself The Following Questions And Answer Them As Honestly As You Can
If you answered YES to any of these questions, you may be a food addict. YOU ARE NOT ALONE. Food Addicts in Recovery Anonymous offers hope through a long-term solution for food addiction.
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Prevalence Of Fa Diagnosis
Twenty-three studies reported the prevalence of FA diagnosis. As shown in Table 3, the proportion of the population samples meeting the diagnostic criteria for FA ranged from 5.4% to 56.8% . Twenty studies reported the mean prevalence of FA for the whole sample and were meta-analyzed . Meta-analysis identified significant heterogeneity in the included studies and thus the random effects model is reported. Meta-analysis revealed that this review was not subject to publication bias.
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Highly Processed Food Withdrawal Scale Children
The Highly Processed Food Withdrawal Scale is a parent-report questionnaire that assesses 21 affective , cognitive , and physical withdrawal-type symptoms that may occur when parents restrict their childs access to highly processed foods. The ProWS-C was developed based on the adult version of the ProWS, with adaptations made for parent-report and developmental considerations for children. The ProWS-C was validated for parent-report of children aged 3-11 .
Factor Structure And Reliability
A confirmatory factor analysis for dichotomous data was conducted to confirm that the YFAS-C exhibited the same one-factor structure as the adult YFAS. The 22 questions related to the 7 diagnostic criteria were entered into a confirmatory factor analysis . The single factor model provided good fit to the data, CFI = 0.71, RMSEA = .078, and the single factor demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability, KuderRichardson = .78. Next, the seven dichotomous symptoms were entered into a separate CFA model. This model also provided adequate fit to the data, CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = .080. Internal consistency was marginal, KuderRichardson = .67, likely reflecting the relatively smaller number of items.
Symptoms Of Food Addiction’
Table 3 furthermore details the prevalence of YFAS 2.0 symptom endorsement in the general sample and according to weight class. In order to preserve clarity within the table, all three obese categories are summed up into one category named obese’. Overall, the most frequently met symptoms were as follows: loss of control’ , activities given up’ , and withdrawal’ . The least frequent were craving’ , and tolerance’ . There was variance in symptom endorsement by weight class, with underweight and obese participants endorsing each of the eleven symptoms, as well as clinically significant impairment/distress, more frequently than normal-weight and overweight participants .
Table 4 illustrates the percentage of individuals with and without YFAS 2.0 food addiction’ that reported each of eleven symptoms, in order to elucidate whether those meeting criteria for YFAS 2.0 food addiction’ exhibit different indicators of addictive-like eating. Among individuals who met the YFAS 2.0 food addiction’ threshold, the most frequent symptoms reported were withdrawal’ and unsuccessful cut-down’ as well as clinically significant impairment/distress’ , though impairment/distress is a required symptom to meet for food addiction’. Tolerance’ and craving’ were the least frequent symptoms among individuals with a food addiction’. Those participants without food addiction’ most frequently endorsed activities given up’ , loss of control’ , and dangerous situations’ .
The Yale Food Addiction Scale Version 20
This survey asks about your eating habits in the past year. People sometimes have difficulty controlling how much they eat of certain foods such as:
- Sweets, like ice cream, chocolate, doughnuts, cookies, cake & candy.
- Starches, likes white bread, rolls, pasta & rice.
- Salty Snacks, like chips, pretzels & crackers.
- Fatty Foods, like steak, bacon, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, pizza & french fries.
- Sugary Drinks, like soda pop, lemonade, sports drinks & energy drinks.
When the following questions ask about CERTAIN FOODS, please think of ANY foods or beverages similar to those listed above, or ANY OTHER foods you have had difficulty with in the past year.
Please consider all statements in relation to the last 12 months.
Yale Food Addiction Scale: Questions
1 In the past 12 months, when I started to eat certain foods, I ate much more than planned.0 Never
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The Assessment Of Food Addiction And The Yale Food Addiction Scale In Bariatric Surgery Populations
Published online by Cambridge University Press: 03 November 2021
- School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, Mt Gravatt, Queensland, Australia
- Analise O’Donovan
- Griffith Health Centre, Griffith University Health Group, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
- Jeffrey Schwartz
- School of Medicine, Griffith Health Centre, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
- Shenelle Edwards-Hampton
- Medical Center Boulevard, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
- *Corresponding author: Paul Stanley, School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, M24, 176 Messines Ridge Rd, Mount Gravatt QLD 4122, Australia. Email:
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Anticipated Effects Of Food Scale
The Anticipated Effects of Food Scale is a self-report questionnaire that measures ones level of food expectancies, or the positive and negative emotional outcomes one anticipates will happen while eating highly and minimally processed foods. The AEFS was developed based upon Expectancy Theory and a self-report questionnaire for measuring ones level of alcohol expectancies, or the positive and negative emotional outcomes one anticipates will happen while drinking alcohol.
Prevalence Of Fa Symptoms
Sixteen studies reported the total number or specific symptoms endorsed by participants. Eight studies reported the mean number of symptoms for the whole study sample and were meta-analyzed . The weighted mean number of symptoms reported was 2.8 Â± 0.4 and ranged from 1.8 to 4.6 symptoms out of a possible total score of seven. Clinical samples endorsed a mean 4.0 Â± 0.5 symptoms while non-clinical samples endorsed a mean 1.7 Â± 0.4 symptoms . Seven studies reported the frequencies of specific FA criteria and in five of these studies the most common symptom reported was âthe persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to cut down foodsâ . Other commonly reported symptoms ranged based on the population studied.
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Recruitment Procedure For The Online Survey
The corresponding author sought assistance from his university students and faculty members to spread information about this online survey. The university students and faculty members were instructed to send the online survey information via multiple forums , and the faculty members were informed that they themselves were not the target population to participate in the survey. The online survey was designed in Google Forms and all survey items were set to be compulsory to avoid missing answers. Participants were informed that if they completed the survey and provided contact information, each participant could receive 100 New Taiwan Dollars as an incentive. Before initiating data collection via the online survey, the study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee in the National Cheng Kung University and the Institutional Review Board in the Chi Mei Medical Center .
The Yale Food Addiction Scale 20 And The Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 20 In Taiwan: Factor Structure And Concurrent Validity
- 1Chinese Academy of Education Big Data, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, China
- 2Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
- 3Department of Early Childhood and Family Education, National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan
- 4Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
- 5Department of Occupational Therapy, AdventHealth University, Orlando, FL, United States
- 6Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, E-DA Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
- 7Faculty of School of Medicine, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
- 8Infinite Power Ltd., Co., Kaohsiung, Taiwan
- 9Division of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
- 10Sunway University Business School, Sunway University, Selangor, Malaysia
- 11International Gaming Research Unit, Department of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom
- 12Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
- 13Department of Public Health, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
- 14Biostatistics Consulting Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
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Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale
Most recently, a short form of the YFAS has been proposed . It consists of nine items only, with one item for assessing each of the seven symptoms of substance dependence in the DSM-IV and two items assessing the presence of a clinically significant impairment or distress . Internal consistency of the seven questions measuring food addiction symptoms ranged between =0.75 and 0.84. Importantly, the prevalence rates of food addiction diagnoses using the mYFAS, as well as its validity indices, were comparable to those found using the full version .
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